The Arabic Musical Art And Its Contribution To The West Civilization


It is really not very easy to define the Arabic music, considering that the principles on which it’s based happen to be taken from peoples non-Arab: Byzantines, Iranians and moors etc. We can make a distinction between the pure Arabic music, which was practiced, and practiced even today, in it primitive form well before the advent of Islam, and the other, more recent, formed under the Arab domination, in the course of the Muslim expansion.

Inside the conquered countries the Arab elements happen to be adapted for the regional music within a balance different each and every time; to put it more clearly, we need to say “Andalusian Arabic music”, “Egyptian Arabic music”, etc; from the above, the regional differences are definitely more prominent than those that could be based in the European music Italian, between and French art and it also using the German art and obliges us to not forget this variable nature.

The 2 small kingdoms of Gassan and Hyra found in the border of Byzantium and Persia, served as containment barriers to the Arab thrusts through the desert. Gassan, satellite in the Byzantine Empire of East and Hyra in the Empire Sassanid Persian, were relying on these two powerful empires and also by them went ,toward the interior of the Arabian Peninsula, a stream of cultural influence of the not escaped the tunes. Influence, which, originating from India, had penetrated in Asia minor and Greece. The Mecca pilgrims to visit the temple of the Kaaba and then the forced trip to the nearby county fairs of Ukaz, were held with music and songs which were a crucial part of the religious and social life. In Ukaz held true festivals of poetry and the chosen formed in a splint with golden letters and hung round the Kaaba, to be read by everybody as well as everybody known its author.

Before the revelation, Muhammad had to necessarily have been present at such ceremonies. If the Prophet approved or disapproved the music was raised after, but the truth is that in the Quran there is not one word against it. Toward the entire year 661, which matches the death of Ali, the 4th orthodox caliph, the Arabs executed only a melody in accordance with the rhythmic values of the spoken language; this litany, knew two kinds of pace: the because of the passage of camels and trotting of horses. Along with the songs of caravan, the Arab pre-Islamic music possessed also funeral elegies, warriors songs, travel songs and love songs. For your Arabic people, the songs accompanying him from cradle to grave; for each and every moment of his life had been a special music: in the pleasure, within the pain, at the office, inside the game within the heat in the battle as well as in the religious devotion.

Amongst the 661, establishment in the Caliphate of Umayyad Damascus and the 833, duration of the Abbasid dynasty, the Arabic music evolves through the Persian and Greek influence; they learn to rid themselves of pace imposed through the spoken language and acquiring the meaning of the appropriate musical measure. Ziryab, great musician and theoretical, that is set up in Al Andalus, achieves that Granada and Cordoba be erected in centers of Arabic musical art giving a character towards the west Arabic music, opposed to some extent, towards the school of Baghdad since, while in Baghdad the tunes is founded on the procedure, the Ziryab school is based on the psycho physiological action that exerts the music being a therapy.

It was during there stay in Spain if the Arabs led to the perfection the music art, setting the characteristics of the great Cantatas, still called Nauba Ghernata (Naubas of Granada). Despite the fact that the music and musical instruments were legally banned, the consequences of spiritual music were clearly recognized. Who gives the final backing, is the intellectual and theologian in the 12th century, Al Gazzali, who wrote, although that is the Sufism causing that music acquires respectability: “Ecstasy means their state reached when you hear the music,” setting the rules so the concert supply the auditor a spiritual profit:

1) A properly chosen time

2) a highly chosen place

3) An easy auditorium

Where is directed the design inside the East, is observed the influence of the Arabic art. In Turkey and Persia were translated works in the Arab along with other were inspired by their work. You will find Arab works known also in India but also for whom the earnings from your context of Arab culture are larger is without doubt for the Western Europe, which received the legacy in the Arabs by two channels: the political contact as well as the literary and the intellectual contact due to the Arab translations and also to the oral teachings by students who studied inside the Muslim schools in Spain and other countries.

It really is possible this is the way of measuring the music the highest legacy left by the Arabs in Europe; the “cantus mensurabilis” was unknown before of Franco Cologne (Franco Teutonicus) approximately in 1190. The Arabs used it since the 7th century. As regards the musical instruments, the Arab heritage is a very important; there is no doubt that the names and current models of a large number of instruments comes from the Arabs. In a first contribution, came each of the string instruments that define the family unit of lute, the audience in the bandola and guitar. Then came the instruments of arc of different types. The transcendental fact was that the lute, the bandola and the guitar brought the spot from the notes marked in the neck by way of frets to discover the pitch. The European troubadours, once they begun to contact the Arabs, should only tune from the ear their instruments that have been the sitar and harp.

Another advantage supplied by the Arabs was the melodic ornamentation, which is the counterpart of arabesque in other arts, which in Europe gave, probably, the very first impetus to the harmony. In philosophy and science, both in the music as with other arts, the contributions from the Arabs were considerable. You are able to say, without overstatement that, they returned undoubtedly for the medieval Europe, that have extracted from the original Europeans. They amalgamated, enriched and collected the original culture contributing along with his own label, making it original and therefore, being a true gift, they gave it on inheritance for the West.